Sun, May 20, 2018
**[Archive]**

BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks

Danaie M, Nasiri Far R, Dideban A. Design of a High-Bandwidth Y-Shaped Photonic Crystal Power Splitter for TE Modes. IJOP. 2018; 12 (1) :33-42

URL: http://ijop.ir/article-1-294-en.html

URL: http://ijop.ir/article-1-294-en.html

In this paper, a Y-shaped power splitter based on a two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) for TE modes is designed and optimized. A triangular lattice of air holes is used for Y-shaped power divider. For analyzing these structures, plane wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods are used. The simulation results show that more than 98% of the input power is transmitted to the outputs and the structure has just less than 2% reflected power. According to the simulation results this structure is suitable for high bandwidth optical integrated circuit at the 1550 nm wavelength.

Type of Study: Applicable |
Subject:
General

Received: 2016/11/22 | Revised: 2017/04/4 | Accepted: 2017/05/6 | Published: 2017/10/28

Received: 2016/11/22 | Revised: 2017/04/4 | Accepted: 2017/05/6 | Published: 2017/10/28

1. P.S.J. Russell, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, R.F. Cregan, and J.-P. De Sandro "Silica/air photonic crystal fibres," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 37, pp. 45 - 48, 1998. [DOI:10.7567/JJAPS.37S1.45]

2. J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, pp. 1547-1549, 1996. [DOI:10.1364/OL.21.001547]

3. J.D. Joannopoulos, P.R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature, vol. 386, pp. 143-149, 1997. [DOI:10.1038/386143a0]

4. F. Mehdizadeh and H. Alipour-Banaei, "Band gap management in two dimensional photonic crystal thue-morse structures," J. of Opt. Commun. vol. 34, pp. 61-65, 2013. [DOI:10.1515/joc-2013-0007]

5. D. Liu, Y. Gao, D. Gao D, and X. Han, "Photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals of core shell-type dielectric nanorod heterostructures," Opt. Commun. vol. 285, pp. 1988-1992, 2012. [DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2011.12.011]

6. L. Scolari, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, L. Zhai, L. Eskildsen, T.T. Alkeskjold, S-T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, "Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. vol. 17, pp. 3754-3764, 2009. [DOI:10.1364/OE.17.003754]

7. M. Danaie and H. Kaatuzian, "Design of a photonic crystal differential phase comparator for a Mach–Zehnder switch," J. of Opt. vol. 13, pp. 015504, 2010. [DOI:10.1088/2040-8978/13/1/015504]

8. I. Park, H.-S. Lee, H.-J. Kim, K.-M. Moon, S.-G. Lee, B-H. O, S-G . Park, and E-H. Lee, "Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling," Opt. Exp. vol. 12, pp. 3599-3604, 2004. [DOI:10.1364/OPEX.12.003599]

9. S. Fan, S.G. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, C. Manolatou, and H. Haus, "Waveguide branches in photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 18, pp. 162-165, 2001. [DOI:10.1364/JOSAB.18.000162]

10. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, and B. Li, "Multimode interference effect and self-imaging principle in two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal waveguides for terahertz waves," Opt. Exp. vol. 14, pp. 2679-2689, 2006. [DOI:10.1364/OE.14.002679]

11. S. Foghani, H. Kaatuzian, and M. Danaie, "Simulation and design of a wideband T-shaped photonic crystal splitter," Optica Applicata, vol. 40, pp. 863-872, 2010.

12. N. Nozhat and N. Granpayeh, "Analysis and simulation of a photonic crystal power divider," J. of Appl. Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 3576-3579, 2007. [DOI:10.3923/jas.2007.3576.3579]

13. A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, and M. Abrishamian, "Bi-periodic photonic crystal Y-splitter," Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, vol. 41, pp. 1495-1499, 2009. [DOI:10.1016/j.physe.2009.04.025]

14. Y.D. Yang, H. Tian, and Y. Ji, "High-bandwidth and low-loss photonic crystal power-splitter with parallel output based on the integration of Y-junction and waveguide bends," Opt. Commun. vol. 285, pp. 3752-3757, 2012. [DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2012.05.022]

15. J.-S. Li and H. Liu, "Terahertz polarization beam splitter based on two photonic crystal cavities," Optik-International J. Light and Electron. Opt. vol. 126, pp. 139-143, 2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijleo.2014.08.130]

16. M. Lin, X. Jin, Z. Ouyang, G. Zheng, and G. Wen, "Y-type polarization beam splitter based on polarization-selective defects within crystal waveguides in a square-lattice photonic crystal with solid rods," Chin. Opt. Lett. vol. 13, pp. s11301- 4, 2015.

17. Z. Huang, X. Yang, Y. Wang, X. Meng, R. Fan, and L. Wang, "Ultrahigh extinction ratio of polarization beam splitter based on hybrid photonic crystal waveguide structures," Opt. Commun. vol. 354, pp. 9-13, 2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2015.05.040]

18. H.A. Badaoui, M. Feham, and M. Abri, "Double bends and Y-shaped splitter design for integrated optics," Prog. In Electromag. Res. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 129-138, 2012.

19. P. Khurana and S. Mishra, "Photonic Crystal Waveguide Based Y-Junction Splitter Through Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Simulation Method," IJSTR, Vol. 3, pp. 186-195, 2014.

20. M. Danaie and H. Kaatuzian, "Bandwidth improvement for a photonic crystal optical Y-splitter," J. of the Opt. Soc. of Korea, vol. 15, pp. 283-288, 2011. [DOI:10.3807/JOSK.2011.15.3.283]

21. M.B. Yucel, A. Cicek, and B. Ulug, "Polarization-independent beam splitting by a photonic crystal right prism," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 113, pp. 107-114, 2013. [DOI:10.1007/s00340-013-5445-y]

22. J. Sharma, R. Sharma, and L.K. Dusad, "Review and analysis of photonic crystal beam splitters for optical communication applications," in Proc. International Conf. on Green Computing and Internet of Things, India. pp. 160-162, 2015. [DOI:10.1109/ICGCIoT.2015.7380449]

23. Y. Xu and J. Xiao, "An ultracompact polarization-insensitive silicon-based strip-to-slot power splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. vol. 28, pp. 536-539, 2016. [DOI:10.1109/LPT.2015.2502983]

24. D.C. Tee, T. Kambayashi, S.R. Sandoghchi, N. Tamchek, and F.R.M. Adikan, "Efficient, Wide Angle, Structure Tuned 1×3 Photonic Crystal Power Splitter at 1550 nm for Triple Play Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. vol. 30, pp. 2818-2823, 2012. [DOI:10.1109/JLT.2012.2205369]

25. D. Tee, N. Tamchek, Y. Shee, and F.M. Adikan, "Numerical investigation on cascaded 1× 3 photonic crystal power splitter based on asymmetric and symmetric 1×2 photonic crystal splitters designed with flexible structural defects," Opt. Exp. vol. 22, pp. 24241-24255, 2014. [DOI:10.1364/OE.22.024241]

26. H. Wang and L. He, "Highly efficient 1×3 power splitter at 1550 nm for triple play applications using photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Eng. vol. 53, pp. 075104-075104, 2014. [DOI:10.1117/1.OE.53.7.075104]

27. J. Zhou, H. Tian, D. Yang, Q. Liu, L. Huang, and Y. Ji, "Low-loss, efficient, wide-angle 1×4 power splitter at ∼1.55 μm wavelengths for four play applications built with a monolithic photonic crystal slab," Appl. Opt. vol. 53, pp. 8012-8019, 2014. [DOI:10.1364/AO.53.008012]

28. Z. Wang and B. Ning, "Compact, wide bandwidth, multi-channel power dividers based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides," Optik, vol. 125, pp. 694-696, 2014. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijleo.2013.07.035]

29. B. Chen, C. Liu, and J. Si, "Design of broadband power splitters using two-mode interference in slot waveguides," Opt. Commun. vol. 355, pp. 367-375, 2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2015.07.009]

30. H.A. Badaoui and M. Abri, "Optimized 1×8 compact splitter based on photonic crystal using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique," Opt. Eng. vol. 54, pp. 067104-067104, 2015. [DOI:10.1117/1.OE.54.6.067104]

31. K. Ren and X. Ren, "Y-shaped beam splitter by graded structure design in a photonic crystal," Chin. Sci. Bul. vol. 57, pp. 1241-1245, 2012. [DOI:10.1007/s11434-012-5007-4]

32. M.K. Moghaddam, M.M. Mirsalehi, and A.R. Attari, "Slow light transmission in a photonic crystal power splitter with parallel outputs," Photon. Nanostructures: Fundam. Appl. vol. 12, pp. 75-82, 2014. [DOI:10.1016/j.photonics.2013.08.002]

33. Y.B. Chen, X.M. Xu, and W. Li, "Study the coupled-cavity waveguides photonic crystal power splitter," Adv. Mater. Research, vol. 900, pp. 222-225, 2014. [DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.900.222]

34. W. Yang, X. Chen, X. Shi, and W. Lu, "Design of a high transmission Y-junction in photonic crystal waveguides," Physica B: Conden. Matt. vol. 405, pp. 1832-1835, 2010. [DOI:10.1016/j.physb.2010.01.056]

35. T. Yu, H. Zhou, Z. Gong, J. Yang, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, "Ultracompact multiway beam splitters using multiple coupled photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. vol. 41, pp. 095101, 2008. [DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/41/9/095101]

36. S. Fan, S.G. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, C. Manolatou, and H. Haus, "Waveguide branches in photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 18, pp. 162-165, 2001. [DOI:10.1364/JOSAB.18.000162]

37. M. Soltani, A. Haque, B. Momeni, A. Adibi, Y. Xu, and R. K. Lee, "Designing complex optical filters using photonic crystal microcavitites," Integr. Optoelectron. Dev. vol. 5000, pp. 257-265, 2003. [DOI:10.1117/12.480062]

38. T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, "Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths," Nature, vol. 383, pp. 699-702, 1996. [DOI:10.1038/383699a0]

39. M. Lončar, D. Nedeljković, T. Doll, J. Vučković, A. Scherer, and T.P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 77, pp. 1937-1939, 2000. [DOI:10.1063/1.1311604]

40. E. Chow, S.Y. Lin, S.G. Johnson, P.R. Villeneuve, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.R. Wendt, G.A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, "Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Nature, vol. 407, pp. 983-986, 2000. [DOI:10.1038/35039583]

41. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Single mode transmission within photonic bandgap of width-varied single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on SOI substrates," Electron. Lett. vol. 37, pp. 293-295, 2001. [DOI:10.1049/el:20010195]

42. H. Shou-Zhen, T. Jie, R. Cheng, X. Xing-Sheng, L. Zhi-Yuan, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, "A Y-branch photonic crystal slab waveguide with an ultrashort interport interval," Chin. Phys. Lett. vol. 22, pp. 1934- 1936, 2005. [DOI:10.1088/0256-307X/22/8/031]

43. T. Yamashita and J. Summers, "Evaluation of self-collimated beams in photonic crystal for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Select. Areas in Commun. vol. 23, pp 1341-1347, 2005. [DOI:10.1109/JSAC.2005.851200]

44. L.H. Frandsen, P.I. Borel, Y.X. Zhuang, A. Harpøth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, and S. Beckx, "Ultralow-loss 3-dB photonic crystal waveguide splitter," Opt. Lett. vol. 29, pp. 1623-1625, 2004. [DOI:10.1364/OL.29.001623]

45. P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, M. Kristensen, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, "Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter," Electron. Lett. vol. 41, pp. 69-71, 2005. [DOI:10.1049/el:20057717]

46. L. Dekkiche and R. Naoum, "Improved transmission for photonic crystal Y-junctions," Electr. Eng. vol. 89, pp. 71-77, 2006. [DOI:10.1007/s00202-005-0318-y]

47. R. Wilson, T.J. Karle, I. Moerman, and T.F. Krauss, "Efficient photonic crystal Y-junctions," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. vol. 5, p. S76-S80, 2003. [DOI:10.1088/1464-4258/5/4/358]

48. M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Hikari, "Time-domain beam propagation method and its application to photonic crystal circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. vol. 18, pp. 102-110, 2000. [DOI:10.1109/50.818913]